People

Arno G. Motulsky, July 5, 1923 – January 17, 2018

Arno Motulsky died at the age of 94 years.  He died comfortably, surrounded by his children Judy, Harvey, and Arlene. 

Arno Motulsky was the founding Head of Medical Genetics at the University of Washington. His life and career were in every way remarkable.  His contributions to human genetics as a scientist, clinician, and mentor cannot be overstated.

Early Years

Arno very nearly died at age 16 when he was among the Jewish passengers fleeing Germany on the 1939 voyage of the ill-fated MS St. Louis. After the ship was denied entry to Cuba it was shamefully turned away from the United States.  On return to Europe, Arno’s was arrested, ironically, for being German and after a series of transfers sent to the Gurs internment camp in Vichy France. Unlike many, he did not die of starvation or cholera, but survived to leave France in June of 1941 just days before his 18th birthday, when escape would have been impossible.

Arno met his future wife Gretel in 1943, became a citizen, joined the military and became a physician scientist, trained in internal medicine and hematology.  He attended Yale University and earned and M.D. at University of Illinois, Chicago, in 1947. He married in 1945. He studied hemoglobinopathies with Karl Singer at Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago during his residencies in medicine and hematology there and later studied red cell disorders at Walter Reed.

Medical Genetics at the University of Washington

In 1953 Arno Motulsky accepted a positon in internal medicine at the University of Washington in Seattle.  Known for his focus on teaching human genetics, the Medicine Chair asked him to found a Division of Medical Genetics.  Arno officially formed the Division of Medical Genetics in 1957. That year he hired Stanley Gartler as the first faculty member.

Researcher

Pharmacogenetics

As the division grew, Motulsky worked both as a physician and scientist. He began to explore genetic reasons for differences in patients’ responses to drugs, developing the new field of pharmacogenetics and becoming known as the “father of pharmacogenetics.” 

In this same period, he demonstrated, in mice, that bone marrow transplantation was a successful treatment for the red blood cell disorder spherocytosis. 

Arno Motulsky 1955
Arno Motulsky 1955

During the 1960s, his interests broadened to encompass the global role of genetic variation in human disease and in genetics as a tool to understand biological processes.  He recruited George Stamatoyannopoulos to join the division, and they worked together on the genetics of G6PD deficiency and population genetics of blood groups and other human variation.

Motulsky’s ever-expanding interests came to include the iron disorder hemochromatosis, associations of HLA antigens with disease, genetic linkage, interaction of genes and environment, hypertension, nutrition, alcoholism, color vision (with the late Samir Deeb), and pesticide metabolism (with Clement Furlong). He contributed importantly to national discussions of bioethical problems, including abortion.

Genetics of Jewish populations

The genetics of Jewish populations was a special area of interest. He studied and taught extensively about Jewish genetic diseases and their origins, first in 1979, with the publication of Genetic Diseases Among Ashkenazi Jews, edited with Richard Goodman. Into his 80s, he was much sought after as a speaker on the genetics of Jewish populations.

Mentor

In 1970, Joseph Goldstein arrived in Seattle as a medical fellow. Motulsky suggested to Goldstein that high cholesterol and lipid levels might be best understood through human genetics.

Arno Motulsky & Joe Goldstein
Motulsky and his former trainee, Joseph Goldstein, who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work in medical genetics.

Together they published the landmark papers describing the transmission of hyperlipidemia in families. They proposed that very high cholesterol levels in these families might be due to a single gene. Goldstein made this project his life’s work.

In 1985 Arno would proudly watch as Joe Goldstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Michael Brown “for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism."  Arno continued to work with lipids throughout his career.

Motulsky was a national model for mentoring, as described in Good Mentoring: Fostering Excellent Practice in Higher Education (Nakamura et al., 2009). The American Society of Human Genetics named its award in genetics education for him.

Teacher

Humble and approachable, Motulsky taught generations of medical geneticists. His textbook, Human Genetics: Problems And Approaches (commonly called “Vogel and Motulsky”) was initially co-authored with the late Friedrich Vogel and first released in 1979. It is the definitive textbook in human genetics and has had a great influence on the field internationally for 35 years. It has been translated into Italian, Japanese, Chinese, and Russian.

Leader

For six decades, Motulsky provided service and leadership in science policy and advocacy nationally and internationally.

He was a founding member of the Institute of Medicine (now the National Academy of Medicine) and served on Presidential Commissions, WHO Expert Advisory Panels, and National Research Council Committees.

He served on the President's Commission on Bioethics; National Research Council committees on nutrition, on genetic testing, and on gene therapy; the Science Council for Atomic Bomb Survivor Studies in Japan; the scientific advisory boards of the Howard Hughes and Markey Foundations; and advisory panels for World Health Organization.

Arno G. Motulsky in University of Washington lab 1996
Arno Motulsky in his UW lab 1996

Awards

His awards included election to the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Medicine, the American Philosophical Society, and the American Society for Clinical Investigation. He was awarded the Alexander von Humboldt Award and a Lifetime Achievement Award of American College of Medical Genetics.

The American Society of Human Genetics honored him with all three of its most senior awards: the William Allen Memorial Award, the Excellence in Education Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award.

Legacy

Into his 90s, Motulsky remained an active and productive presence at the University of Washington. In his last publication, he reflected on his life as a physician, scientist, and mentor, as “the adventure of an American geneticist.”

Picture of Arno Motulsky, George Stamatoyannopoulos, Gail Jarvik and Stan Gartler at Arno and Stan's 90th birthday party
Arno Motulsky, George Stamatoyannopoulos, Gail Jarvik and Stan Gartler at Arno and Stan's 90th birthday party

Throughout his 60-year career in genetics and medicine, he personified the physician-scientist-educator. His legacy extends into every area of modern human and medical genetics. His broad influence and humble leadership style reflected his genius and commitment.

Motulsky is survived by his children Judy Walker, Harvey Motulsky (Lisa Norton), and Arlene Audergon (Jean-Claude Audergon); six grandchildren (Collette, Jordan, Wendy, Nathan, Joey, and Ruby); and two great-grandchildren (Loretta and Vivian). Services have not yet been announced.


Written by Gail P. Jarvik, M.D., Ph.D. 
Head, Division of Medical Genetics
The Arno G. Motulsky Endowed Chair in Medicine
Professor of Genome Sciences

Edited by Mary-Claire King, Ph.D. 
Professor of Medicine and Genome Sciences